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- What Fish is That?
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What Fish is That?
Due to the demersal behaviour of the species, there is no certainty that the approach used for juvenile salmonids with surface bypasses combined with existing trashracks would be efficient. Experiments on bottom bypasses need to be undertaken, although it must be recognised that even if this technique were to prove efficient, there would be a considerable challenge to design facilities that did not create significant maintenace problems. The principle of behavioural light screens appears promising, taking into account the species repulsion to light Hadderingh et al.
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Stopping turbines during downstream migration is a solution already envisaged, as is the capture of individuals upstream of the obstacles for Anguilla rostrata in the USA Euston et al. However, these solutions assume that the downstream migration period is both predictable and sufficiently short, which does not appear to be the case for the European eel Anguilla anguilla if we consider downstream migration monitoring Larinier and Travade, The following review is not considered exhaustive.
It aims to explore the current use of fish passes throughout the world, the target species, the state of technology and the current philosophy. Some countries are not mentioned because the state of the art is poorly documented or unscientific and some because they are of no great interest within the framework of this limited document.
Upstream facilities and downstream passage technologies are respectively in use at 9. Fish passage requirements are most common along the Pacific and Atantic coast which support the most important anadromous fisheries and in the Rocky Mountains which have valuable recreational fisheries. The main advances in upstream passage technology have come from the west coast of USA and Canada, where fish passage facilities have gradually become more sophisticated over the years since the building of the first dam Bonneville dam about 60 years ago on the Columbia river OTA, Currently, about 40 large-scale hydro developments are in place on the Columbia river.
Upstream passage technologies are considered to be well-developed and understood for the main anadromous species including salmonids Pacific salmon and steelhead trout , and clupeids American shad, alewife and blueback herring, Alosa spp. Upstream passage fish facilities have not been specifically designed for potamodromous species, although some of these fish will use them carp, northern squawfish, suckers, shiner, whitefish, chub, dace, crappie, catfish, trout Most of these fish passes are pool-type fish passes with lateral notches and orifices Ice Harbor type pool fish pass , or vertical slot pool fish passes where it is necessary to accommodate higher upstream and downstream variations in water levels Clay, For smaller facilities, vertical slot fish passes are the most frequent type of design in British Columbia and pool and weir fish passes in Washington and Oregon Walburn and Gillis, The Denil fish pass is not widely used in the West coast, except in Alaska for salmon Oncorrhinchus spp.
On the East coast of the USA and Canada, the advances in fish pass design are more recent, since anadromous species restoration programs on the main rivers of New England Connecticut, Merrimack, Penobscot, St Croix river were launched in the sixties of the last century. Fish passes of all types have been used to pass the following target species, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar , shad Alosa sapidissima , alewife Alosa pseudoharengus , striped bass Morone saxatilis , smelt Osmerus mordax and sea-run brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis.
Fish lifts have been successfully used to pass large populations of shad on the Connecticut, Merrimack and Susquehanna rivers. Denil fish passes have been used in Maine, namely for salmon and alewife. Fish pass development in the Maritimes appears to have followed the Maine experience closely with the exception that Denil fish passes were not widely constructed Washburn and Gillis, For the same species, pool and weir fish passes are preferred, with drops varying from 0. In the East coast of Canada, Clay reported there are fish passes.
For central Canada and the USA, Clay lists 40 fish passes used by potamodromous species as catostomids, cyprinids, ictalurids, esocids , gadids and percids, as well as salmonids such as Salvelinus, Coregonus, Thymallus Schwallme, Francfort et al.
At least six of the case study projects have successfully increased the upstream passage rates or downstream passage survivals of anadromous species. The most significant success are the two fish lifts at the Conowingo dam which are an essential part of the Susquehanna river shad restoration programme: adult shad numbers below the dam increased from 4 to over 80 between and Cada, Although all of the projects had conducted some degree of performance monitoring of their fish passage mitigation measures, there were substantial differences in the extent and rigour of the studies : for some projects monitoring was limited to studies during a single season or based only on visual observations.
For most case study projects benefits could be expressed only in terms of the increased numbers of fish transported around the dam. The influence of these increased numbers on the subsequent size of the fish populations was rarely known Cada, In England and Wales, a recent inventory suggests that there are approximately fish passes.
More than have been built since Cowx, For many years fish passes have been built almost exclusively for Atlantic salmon and sea-run brown trout. The most commonly used fish pass is the pool-type fish pass Beach, in England and Wales, and more recently floor baffle Denil fish passes Armstrong, In Scotland, submerged orifice fish passes, pool and weir passes and fish locks were used in the fifties of the last century.
The diadromous species considered are Atlantic salmon, sea-run brown trout, sea lamprey, Allis shad, and eel. The only potamodromous species taken into account by the law are brown trout, northern pike and European grayling. Consequently, more than fish passes have been built or retrofitted over the last 17 years. As a result of experience gained, in particular from experiments with hydraulic models, and on-site monitoring, certain advances have been made in the choice and design criteria for upstream fish facilities. Denil fish passes are only used for Atlantic salmon, sea-run brown trout and sea lamprey on small rivers.
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Fish lifts or large pool-type passes with large and deep passages vertical slot or deep notches are used for shad. When several species must be taken into account, the recommended fish pass is the pool type Larinier, Photo Submerged orifice fish passes at Clunie dam in Scotland. In Germany and Austria, design and construction of fish passes has also been very active over the last 15 years.
Fish pass design tends to take into consideration many of the potamodromous species brown trout, cyprinids, percids, etc. The most common fish pass used is the natural-like bypass channel Parasiewicz et al. However, where land is limited, more conventional pool and weir fish passes are used DVWK, Pavlov reviewed fish passes in the former USSR.
Conventional pool and weir fish passes are used for salmonids. He describes fish facilities built in the Caspian basin, Azov and Black seas, and in particular on the Volga, Don and Kuban rivers where target species were Acipenseridae, Clupeidae, Cyprinidae, namely Vimba vimba , Percidae and Siluridae. Very large fish locks, fish sluice, fish lifts and mobile devices for fish collection and transport have been designed for these species.
There are probably about 10 fish passes installed on Japanese rivers Nakamura and Yotsukura, They are mainly designed for anadromous salmonids Oncorhyncus spp. Recently, riverine species have also been selected as target species Nakamura, Over 95 percent of fish passes are conventional pool and weir fish passes, the others are vertical slot and Denil type. Most of the first fish passes designed for ayu were not efficient because they were imitations of European designs which were only suitable for larger fish Nakamura et al.
As noted by Wang and Clay , China has a vast system of reservoirs about 86 and the fisheries of these reservoirs are intensively exploited and maintained by stocking from hatcheries, so that little need has been felt for fish passes. The first fish passes are only 40 years old Wang, and around 60 to 80 fish passes have been built Nakamura, The main target species are potamodromous species, mainly four species of carp, and catadromous species, mainly Japanese eel.
Most fish passes are pool-type. Zhili et al. The fish pass effectiveness was fairly well monitored 5 hours of observation annually. The effect of the fish pass seems to be significant, statistics of fish harvest showed that the annual fish output in the upstream part of the Mishui river increased to 3. This fish pass has been specifically designed to pass very small fish, with very low turbulence in pools and low drops about 0.
This fish pass is one of the few examples of a well designed fish pass, adapted to native species and well monitored in developing countries. Africa has over 2 known species of indigenous freshwater fishes. The construction of dams has multiplied since the 50s for both irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. Shad populations are present in North African rivers, namely in Morocco, but the existing and for some of them recent fish passes seem not adapted to this species. The fish pass planned in on the Garde dam on the Oued Sebou was neither adapted to shad, nor to the dam and was clearly bounded to fail Larinier, pers.
Apart from shad in North Africa, no anadromous species are known. As noted in Daget et al. The impact of dams is perhaps more obvious in the disappearance of biotopes for some rheophilic species located in areas where there are rapids, gorges or rocky ground, all of which are areas likely to be chosen for dam building. In South Africa, the need for fish passes has become apparent only in recent years.
This country has a low diversity of freshwater fish. In the coastal streams there are only six catadromous species: striped mullet, freshwater mullet and four species of eels Mallen-Cooper, In the more inland rivers of the Transvaal, there are potamodromous species, mainly cyprinids, with both juveniles and adult migrating upstream.follow
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The few existing fish passes only 7 in , Bok, , have been based on existing European and North American designs for salmonids and do not meet the needs of native species. Coastal streams have many migratory fishes that are catadromous or amphidromous, with both juveniles and adults migrating upstream. In the second major drainage system, the Murray-Darling river system, most migrating species are potamodromous with adults migrating upstream. About 50 fish passes have been recorded Mallen-Cooper and Harris, Most of them are pool-type fish passes and were judged ineffective because inadequate maintenance and inappropriate design characteristics, i.
In New South Wales, up to mid's salmonid pool-type designs submerged orifice and pool-and-weir with salmonid design criteria were used. Recent laboratory studies on native fish using experimental vertical-slot fishways showed successful. Field studies on these vertical-slot fishways with reduced head losses between pools and reduced turbulence compared with salmonid fishways have confirmed effectiveness for native fishes Mallen Cooper, pers.
Rock ramps and nature-like bypass channels with very low slope to are used on smaller barriers. Their use is still experimental. They have had some initial success in passing fish and assessment in most cases is continuing Mallen Cooper, pers. In the state of Queensland, a tropical and sub-tropical region of Australia, about 22 fish passes were built prior to , most of them on tidal dams Barry, Early designs were based on fish passes used for salmon and trout in the northern hemisphere.
The majority of these fish passes were judged to be ineffective in providing native fish passage, mainly striped mullet Mugil cephalus and barramundi Lates calcarifer Beitz, which support important commercial fisheries. Under the guidance of a Fish Pass Coordinating Committee, Queensland has begun a programme of fish pass design, construction and monitoring which better reflects the requirements of native fish.
A major programme of retrofitting existing fish passes has been launched Jackson, The actual philosophy in Queensland is to use locks where dam heights exceed 6 metres and vertical slot fish passes elsewhere with 0. Of the currently recognised 35 indigenous freshwater fish species in New Zealand, 18 are diadromous.